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          Words in Chinese and Traditions in China

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          Core prompt: 1. What's "guanxi"? Guanxi is regarded as the central idea in Chinese society with long historical and cultural roots. It is understood and utilized by virtually ev

          1. What's "guanxi"?
          Guanxi is regarded as the central idea in Chinese society with long historical and cultural roots. It is understood and utilized by virtually every Chinese person in greater or lesser measure.
          Understanding how the Chinese view guanxi is crucial to understanding Chinese people. It is too simple to call guanxi "relationships", "networking", or
          "connections", because all of these things are basic? bers of the Chinese culture. Guanxi can take on many forms. It does not have to be based on money. Developing and nurturing guanxi requires time and resources. People rely on it not only for getting things done, but also for protection, security and support.
          In the West, relationships grow out of deals. In China, deals grow out of relationships. Chinese prefer to work with persons they know and trust. This relationship extends between companies and also between individuals at an ongoing personal level.
          With manners, diligence, courtesy and goodwill, one establishes his/her own guanxi. For foreigners, no matter how much experience you have in western business management, the right "Guanxi" in China will make all the difference in ensuring success. The inevitable risks, barriers, and set-ups you'll encounter in China will be minimized when you have the right "Guanxi" network working for you.

          2. What's "mianzi"?
          Mianzi, which means "face" in English, is a fundamental concept in the fields of sociology, sociolinguistics, semantics, politeness theory, psychology, political science, communication, and Face Negotiation Theory.
          It is a combination of dignity, pride and public reputation, particularly through the eyes of one's close connections.
          As a famous Chinese saying goes, "Men live for face as trees grow for bark." Managing mianzi is an integral part of Chinese etiquette. Surface harmony is the art of maintaining composure and remaining polite and courteous. It can be so important that Chinese may sweep aside business to keep it.

          3. What's "geimianzi"?
          It means giving face, showing respect for a person's feelings.
          The Chinese are acutely sensitive to gaining and maintaining face in all aspects of social and business life. Simple ways of "giving face" could be sitting in the correct place at a meeting or dinner, offering an appropriate gift to a person, or giving praise and compliments.
          Giving face earns respect and loyalty, but praise should be used sparingly. Over-use suggests insincerity on the part of the giver.

          4. What's "meimianzi"?
          It means losing face. Causing someone to lose face could ruin business prospects or even invite recrimination. The easiest way to cause someone to lose face is to insult an individual or criticise him/ her in front of others. It is not really the act that causes a loss of face but the fact that the act is public, and there is public humiliation or loss of prestige involved.
          Westerners can unintentionally end Chinese by making fun of them in a good-natured way.
          Another error can be to treat someone as a subordinate when their status in an organization is high.

          5. What's "liumianzi"?
          It means giving someone a chance to regain lost honor.
          It can be very important in building long-term business relationships and friendships. For example, the Chinese feel it is rude to directly deny a request, and will either fail to give any response at all or will indirectly say "no" with a quali? cation such as, "Well, that might not be very convenient."

          6. What's "yuanfen"?
          Yuan or yuanfen is a Buddhist-related Chinese concept that means the predetermined principle that dictates a person's relationships and encounters, usually positive, such as the a? nity among friends or lovers. In common usage the term can be defined as the "binding force" that links two persons together in any relationship. The concept of synchronicity from the Swiss psychologist Carl Jung can be seen as similar to yuanfen, which Chinese people also believe to be a universal force governing the happening of things to some people at some places. Yuanfen belongs to the family of concepts known in theology as determinism.
          Unlike other Chinese social relations, which describe abstract, but easily noticeable, connections between people, nowadays, Chinese merely use this word poetically or to emphasize a meant-to-be relationship, and almost never in a serious business or legal situation.

          7. What's "keqi"?
          Chinese people normally say "bukeqi" instead of "you're welcome". Ke means guest and qimeans behavior. As used to describe behavior, keqi means politeness, courtesy, modesty, humility, understanding, well-mannered behavior and so on. All of these de? nitions are natural in the Chinese cultural context.
          The importance of keqi also indicates how sensitive Chinese are to any sign of arrogance or haughtiness. Chinese are expected to demonstrate keqi in all of their actions and especially toward foreign guests.
          As social conditions continue to change, the force of keqi is diminishing, but it is still discernible in the behavior of all Chinese, including overseas Chinese.

          8. What are the wellknown Chinese festivals?

          Spring Festival
          The Chinese New Year is now popularly known as the Spring Festival because it starts from the beginning of spring. The Spring Festival is the most important festival for the Chinese people. All people living away from home are expected to go back, so it is becoming the busiest time for transportation systems of about half a month. Airports, railway stations and long-distance bus stations are crowded with home returnees.
          New Year's Eve and New Year's Day are celebrated as a family affair, a time of reunion and thanksgiving.
          At New Year's Eve, a big dinner is served. The family end the night with firecrackers. Early the next morning, children greet their parents by wishing them a healthy and happy new year, and receive money in red paper envelopes.

          Lantern Festival
          The first month of the Chinese calendar is called yuan month and in ancient times people called the night xiao. The?? fteenth day is the?? rst night to see a
          full moon, therefore the day is called Yuan Xiao Festival (Lantern Festival) in China.
          According to Chinese tradition, at the very beginning of a new year, when there is a bright full moon hanging in the sky, there should be thousands of colorful lanterns hung out for people to appreciate.
          At this time, people will try to solve puzzles on lanterns, eat yuanxiao (glutinous rice ball) and enjoy a family reunion.
          Yuanxiao is made of glutinous rice our, filled with red bean paste, chopped peanuts and sugar, sesame paste (ground black sesame seeds mixed with lard), rock sugar (which would create a hot, melting caramel-like?? lling), etc.

          Qingming Festival
          The Qingming Festival, or Tomb Sweeping Day is a traditional Chinese festival on the 15th day from the Spring Equinox, usually occurring around April 5 of the Gregorian calendar. Its name denotes a time for people to go outside and enjoy the greenery of springtime and tend to the graves of departed ones.
          The concept of?? lial piety or obedience to one's elderly or ancestors is a very important concept in the Chinese culture. Traditionally, the Chinese believed that the spirits of deceased ancestors will look after the family even when they are gone. Hence, o? erring food and spirit money could keep them happy in the spiritual world, and in turn, the living family will continue to prosper through good harvests from the ancestor's blessing.

          Duanwu Festival
          Duanwu Festival, also known as Dragon Boat Festival, is a traditional and statutory holiday associated with Chinese and other East Asian and Southeast Asian societies as well. The festival occurs on the 5th day of the 5th month of the lunar calendar. The focus of the celebrations includes eating the rice dumpling Zongzi, drinking realgar wine Xionghuangjiu, and racing dragon boats.
          The traditional food for the Dragon Boat Festival, Zongzi is a glutinous rice ball, with a filling, wrapped in corn leaves. The?? fillings can be egg, beans, sweet potato, walnuts, mushrooms, meat, or a combination of them. They are generally steamed.

          Mid-Autumn Festival
          The Zhongqiu Festival, also known as the Moon Festival or Mid-Autumn Festival, is a popular harvest festival celebrated by Chinese people. It is held on the 15th day of the eighth month in the Chinese calendar.
          This festival is also known as the Moon Cake Festival because a special kind of sweet cake (moon cake) prepared in the shape of the moon.
          For generations, moon cakes have been made with sweet?? llings of nuts, mashed red beans, lotus-seed paste or Chinese dates, wrapped in a pastry. Sometimes a cooked egg yolk can be found in the middle of the rich tasting dessert.

          9. When do Chinese people usually take a long vacation?
          The annual Chinese Spring Festival comes every late January or early February, almost every Chinese person takes vacation for at least 7 days.

          10. What is the symbolism of colours in Chinese traditions?

          In China, red carries a largely positive connotation, being associated with courage, loyalty, honor, success, fortune, fertility, happiness and passion. In Chinese cultural traditions, red is associated with weddings (where brides traditionally wear red dresses) and red paper is also frequently used to wrap gifts of money or other things. Special red packets in China are used during the Chinese New Year to give monetary gifts.

          The legendary first emperor of China was known as the Yellow Emperor or Huangdi. Members of the imperial family of China at that time were the only ones allowed to display the color yellow in buildings and garments.

          Black and White
          Black and white are used during a funeral to symbolize the spirit's return to the heavens. A black ribbon is usually hung over the deceased's picture.

          Chinese men won't wear green hats. Because it means that his wife is having an affair.

          11. Why do Chinese refuse to be complimented?
          You would be confused when in response to a passionate and sincere exclamation "You are beautiful!" they hear something like, "no, not at all" or "nali nali" (which means "no" too). You may hear this response in nearly every scenario when you compliment a Chinese.
          For instance, when you says to a Chinese, "You English is very good", a typical reply is, "Nali nali, my English is poor." When you compliment your colleague,
          "You did a very good job." A polite answer (accompanied by a smile) would be, "Oh, don't laugh at me. I still have a lot of things to learn. You are better than me."
          Chinese are often very implicative toward the compliment and they respect all other people while they are quite humble when in the communication. They are unlikely to respond to a compliment with thanks or any other acknowledgement of its validity. One rather responds with a certain mood of self-depreciation.
          Chinese politeness emphasizes respect for the other and modesty for oneself. "Self-depreciation" can be seen, as another way of saying "modesty".

          12. What are the features of Chinese modesty?
          Modesty is one of the traditional virtues the great sage Confucius advocated. Although a great scholar, Confucius admonished his students, "When walking in the company of three, there must be one I can learn from". To Confucius modesty and humility are required qualities for a society to sustain itself while pride will lead to destruction.
          Traditionally the Chinese people do not like to show a high opinion of their own merits. Instead they are always modest about their achievements, or prefer a low-key statement to a display of their advantages.
          The typical example of the modesty is demonstrated by the host to his visitors. He will apologize for the ill-preparation and small quantity of his food, which turns out to be sumptuous banquet.
          Another common way to show the Chinese modesty is that the Chinese often politely refuse offers of drinks, refreshments, gifts and other favors two or three times before graciously accepting them. Their modesty requires them not to open the gifts before the sender.
          Their modesty requires them not to challenge but to respect, which results in a low pro? le of Chinese.
          This is sometimes misunderstood as no ambition or competitive spirit. Their modesty leads them more to group-consciousness rather than to individual consciousness.
          But nowadays some people, especially young and educated Chinese, like to follow the English way and thank admirers for their compliments.

          13. Who is Confucius?
          Confucius was a Chinese thinker and social philosopher of the Spring and Autumn Period. The philosophy of Confucius emphasized personal and governmental morality, correctness of social relationships, justice and sincerity. These values gained prominence in China over other doctrines. Confucius' thoughts have been developed into a system of philosophy known as Confucianism.
          Confucius' principles had a basis in common Chinese tradition and belief. He championed strong familial loyalty, ancestor worship, respect of elders by their children (and, according to later interpreters, of husbands by their wives), and the family as a basis for an ideal government. He expressed the well known principle, "Do not do to others what you do not want done to yourself", one of the earlier versions of the Golden Rule.

          14. Why do Chinese suppliers invite me to a business dinner? Does it mean their products are not so good?
          No, Chinese business dinners are based on tradition.
          If done properly, the business banquet is one of the best ways to demonstrate one's knowledge and appreciation of Chinese culture to current or future business associates.
          Giving gift is the same. Unlike many countries, the giving of gifts does not carry any negative connotations when doing business in China. Gifts should always be exchanged for celebrations, as thanks for assistance and even as a sweetener for future favours.
          However, it is important not to give gifts in the absence of a good reason or a witness. This may be construed differently.
          Business gifts are always reciprocated. They are seen as debts that must be repaid. When giving gifts, people are not supposed to give cash. They need to be items of worth or beauty. Do not be too frugal with your choice of gift otherwise you will be seen as an "iron rooster", i.e. getting a good gift out of you is like getting a feather out of an iron rooster.

          15. How do Chinese accept a gift?
          The traditional Chinese practice in gift-exchange is quite different from that of Westerners. Chinese are taught as children that in order to show modesty and avoid any suggestion of personal greed, they should decline two or three times when offered a gift. Chinese do not usually accept a gift, invitation or favor when it is first presented. Accepting something in haste makes a person look aggressive and greedy.
          Usually when a gift is offered, there is then a seesaw battle in which the gift is offered and refused, offered and refused but finally accepted with appropriate expression of appreciation. The gift is supposed not to be opened on the spot; it is tucked away in a pocket or left on a table until the giver has departed. Only then it would be opened.
          One interpretation of this practice is that the receiver is preserving the face of the giver by avoiding any possibility of evaluating the gift in the presence of the giver and others. Such behavior is simply the Chinese manner.

          16. What does "Have you eaten" mean?
          The question "Have you eaten?" or "Where have you been?" are mentioned in China as well as "How are you". It's just a superficial inquiry that does not require a literal-minded, detailed answer.

          17. Should I arrive earlier when hosting a banquet?
          Yes, you should arrive at least 30 minutes before your guests.

          18. What's the order of Chinese names?
          Chinese names appear in a different order than Western names.
          Most noticeably, a Chinese name is written with the family name first and the given name next. Chinese people commonly address each other with full names instead of given names (especially for names consisting of two characters in total).
          Family names are never used alone without any salutation.
          For instance, the basketball player Yao Ming should be formally addressed as "Mr. Yao", not "Mr. Ming", and informally addressed as "Yao Ming" instead of "Yao" or "Ming".

          19. Do people need to take off their shoes at the door before entering a house in China?
          In restaurants you always keep your shoes on, but in private home you will usually take your shoes o? and change into slippers. Chinese people prepare slippers for guests and themselves.

          20. Do I need to tip in China?
          No, tipping is not practiced and almost no one asks for tips.

          21. Why do younger Chinese give up a seat to elders on bus?
          Chinese people respect for elders. So don't be offended if younger Chinese offer you an arm going up stairs or other assistance if you are older.

          22. What are the differences between western wedding and Chinese wedding?
          In China, marriage is considered to be one of the three most important things in one's whole life. Chinese wedding is a ceremonial ritual within Chinese societies that involve a marriage established by prearrangement between families.
          When the wedding day comes, the bride's and groom's families perform "hair dressing" ritual for the bride and "capping" ritual for the groom, which symbolizes their initiation into adulthood and were important parts of the wedding preparations.
          The bride would wear auspicious and festive red clothes, and the bridegroom would wear a special wedding suit accompanied by a procession to pick up his bride.
          Then the bride and groom will leave her home and proceed to meet the groom's parents for Tea Ceremony. The couple needs to serve tea to both parents and guests. In return, they will be presented with jewelry and money placed in red envelopes.
          The feast or wedding banquet is an important part during the wedding. Wedding banquets are to thank family and friends for the kindness they have shown throughout the years. Most feasts will serve a twelve course meal including delicacies like roasted pig.
          The night of the wedding, the bridal room will lit dragon and phoenix candle to drive away the evil spirit, the newlyweds will drink wine from two cups tied together with a red string, arms crossed with each other.

          23. How to enjoy Beijing opera?
          Beijing opera or Peking opera is a form of traditional Chinese theatre which combines music, vocal performance, mime, dance and acrobatics. It arose in the late 18th century and became fully developed and recognized by the mid-19th century. Beijing opera features four main types of performers.

          The Sheng is the main male role in Beijing opera. This role has numerous subtypes. The Laosheng is a digni? ed older role. Young male characters are known as Xiaosheng. The Wusheng is a martial character for roles involving combat. They are highly trained in acrobatics, and have a natural voice when singing.

          The Dan refers to any female role. Dan roles were originally divided into five subtypes. Old women were played by Laodan, martial women were Wudan, young female warriors were Daomadan, virtuous and elite women were Qingyi, and vivacious and unmarried women were Huadan. In the early years of Beijing opera, all Dan roles were played by men.

          The Jing is a painted face male role. Depending on the repertoire of the particular troupe, he will play either primary or secondary roles. Beijing opera boasts 15 basic facial patterns, but there are over 1000 specific variations. Each design is unique to a specific character.

          The Chou is a male clown role. The Chou usually plays secondary roles in a troupe. The name of the role is a homophone of the Mandarin Chinese word chou, meaning "ugly". This reflects the traditional belief that the clown's combination of ugliness and laughter could drive away evil spirits.

          24. Does every Chinese learn Kungfu?
          Of course not. Chinese Kungfu is classi? ed into various styles according to different regions, different schools and families, as well as different fighting techniques. There are two popular Kungfu styles: Shaolin Temple in Henan Province and Wudang Mountain in Hubei Province.
          The Shaolin Monastery or Shaolin Temple is long famous for its association with Chinese martial arts and particularly with Shaolin Kung Fu. Of the tens of thousands of kung fu and wushu styles, several hundred might have some relationship to Shaolin. In years past, the mountains of Wudang were known as an academic centre for the research, teaching and practice of Chinese martial arts. Wudang Taiji, also known as shadowboxing, is another major division of Chinese martial art. Now it has become a practice that promotes relaxation and relieving stress.

          25. How many categories of tea are there in China?
          The practice of drinking tea has had a long history in China. The Chinese drink tea during many parts of the day such as during meals for good health or for simple pleasure.
          Chinese tea is a life time of enjoyment. Tea tasting has cultural meaning. Tea and tea wares should match surrounding elements such as breeze, bright moon, pines, bamboo, plums and snow. All these show the ultimate goal of Chinese culture: the harmonious unity of human beings with nature. Chinese tea may be classified into five categories according to the different methods by which it is processed.

          Green tea
          Green tea is the variety which keeps the original colour of the tea leaves without fermentation during processing. This category consists mainly of Longjing tea of Zhejiang Province, Maofeng of Huangshan Mountain in Anhui Province and Biluochun produced in Jiangsu.

          Black tea
          Black tea, known as "red tea" (hong cha) in China, is the category which is fermented before baking. It is a later variety developed on the basis of the green tea. The best brands of black tea are Qihong of Anhui Province, Dianhong of Yunnan Province, Suhong of Jiangsu Province, Chuanhong of Sichuan Province and Huhong of Hunan Province.

          Wulong tea
          This represents a variety half way between the green and the black teas, being made after partial fermentation. It is a specialty from the provinces on China's southeast coast: Fujian, Guangdong and Taiwan.

          Compressed tea
          This is the kind of tea which is compressed and hardened into a certain shape. It is good for transport and storage and is mainly supplied to the ethnic minorities living in the border areas of the country. As compressed tea is black in colour in its commercial
          form, so it is also known in China as "black tea". Most of the compressed tea is in the form of bricks; it is, therefore, generally called "brick tea", though it is sometimes also in the form of cakes and bowls. It is mainly produced in Hubei, Hunan, Sichuan and Yunnan provinces.
          Scented tea
          This kind of tea is made by mixing fragrant flowers in the tea leaves in the course of processing. The owers commonly used for this purpose are jasmine and magnolia among others.
          Jasmine tea is a wellknown favourite with the northerners of China and with a growing number of foreigners.

          26. Why do Guangdong people tap the table when someone pours tea for them?
          When tea drinkers tap the table with two (occasionally three) fingers of the same hand, an action known as finger kowtow, it is an expression of gratitude to the member of the party who filled their cups.
          According to legend, this gesture recreates a tale of Imperial obeisance and can be traced to the Qianlong Emperor, a Qing Dynasty emperor who used to travel incognito. While visiting South China, he once went into a teahouse with his companions. In order to maintain his anonymity, he took his turn at pouring tea. His stunned companions wanted to kowtow for the great honour but to do so would have revealed the identity of the emperor. Finally, one of them tapped three fingers on the table (One finger representing their bowed head and the other two representing their prostrate arms) and the clever emperor understood what he meant. From then on, this has been the practice.

          27. What are the features of Chinese tea house?

          Tea house in Beijing and Tianjin
          Unlike Kongfu tea in South China, the tea houses in Beijing and Tianjin use green tea or jasmine tea instead of Wulong tea. They don't have the same level of ceremony that is used for Kongfu tea.
          Teahouses in Tianjin have the professional performance of Chinese folk art called "Xiangsheng" which can be likened to a "talk-show" in the west.

          Tea house in Guangdong
          The Cantonese have a custom of drinking tea with dim sum in their leisure time or at business meetings.
          The tea drinking tradition can be traced back over a hundred years to the Qing Dynasty (1644- 1911).
          The real tea-drinkers preferred to kill time with one pot of fragrantly hot tea and two plates of snacks. In the past, businessmen came here to exchange information as well as to enjoy life a little bit over a cup of tea with some snacks.
          Kungfu tea (Kungfu cha), the "espresso" of Chinese teas with a formidable kick, is still flourishing and remains an important part of social etiquette in Chaozhou, Guangdong province.

          Tea house in Sichuan
          Sichuan has teahouses in towns and cities everywhere.
          There is a saying, "China has the best teahouses in the world and Chengdu has the best teahouses in China."
          Located on the streets in Sichuan Province, teahouse serves unique local cuisine and is home to the true local living style. Teahouses have been an important home for social interaction and gathering place since ancient times.
          Whichever tea house you go into, you can appreciate the strong style of Sichuan: the bamboo chairs, the square tables, the particular tea sets, the cooper teapots and the special skill of filling water by Dr. Tea, the name given to the tea waiters in Sichuan.
          You can also watch Chuanju Opera in tea houses. To attract the audience, Chuanju masters developed a unique sense of humor and performance skills, such as mask changing and knife play.

          Tea house in South of Yangtze River It is a custom for Yangzhou people to have morning tea in teahouses, which is part of Yangzhou culture and also an indication of rich Chinese food culture. Pingtan, a form of storytelling accompanied by music, is also popular in tea houses in south of Yangtze River.
          The Huaiyang-style cuisine is popular in Jiangsu and Zhejiang province. It is ranked as the top of all eight famous Chinese cuisine styles, with pastry and snacks being the key components.
          Dim sum generally refers to steamed buns, thin tofu noodles in broth, giant soup dumplings, and fried fritters.

          28. How many kinds of styles are there in Chinese cuisine?
          "The Chinese eat everything with four legs, except tables, and everything that?? ies, except airplanes." A number of different styles contribute to Chinese cuisine, but perhaps the best known and most in? uential are Sichuan cuisine, Shandong cuisine, Jiangsu cuisine and Guangdong (Cantonese) cuisine.

          Guangdong (Cantonese) cuisine
          Canton is, perhaps, the most famous of the food areas. Long, warm, wet days throughout the year create the perfect environment for cultivating most everything. The coast provides ample seafood; the groves are filled with fruits. Cooking methods and recipes here are sophisticated and varied.
          Cantonese food (Yue Cai in Chinese) is typically steamed, boiled or stir-fried. It is a very healthy food since it uses minimum of oil. The main ingredients of this type of Chinese food are seafood, pork, chicken and vegetables, but could include almost anything. You need white rice to accompany the meal to make it complete unless it is a special banquet. Cantonese dim sum ranks the best in the whole country. Yexiao (Midnight Snack) is one of the Guangzhou population's customs. It is usually taken after 10 p.m.; hence the name Midnight Snack. Some people like to cook the meal themselves; others invite a few friends to have Yexiao at a restaurant.

          Jiangsu cuisine
          Jiangsu cuisine consists of the styles of Yangzhou, Nanjing, Suzhou and Zhenjiang dishes. It is very famous in the whole world for its distinctive style and taste. It is especially popular in the lower reach of the Yangtze River.
          Known as "a land of fish and rice" in China, Jiangsu Province has a rich variety of ingredients available for cooking. Jiangsu cuisine has the characteristics of strictly selected ingredients, exquisite workmanship, elegant shape, and rich culture trait. The typical raw materials are fresh and live aquatic products. It highlights the freshness of ingredients. Other cooking ingredients are often carefully selected tea leaves, bamboo shoots, mushrooms, pears, and dates. Its carving techniques are delicate, of which the melon carving technique is especially well known. Due to using the methods of stewing, braising, quick-frying, warming-up, stir-frying, wine sauce pickling and adding some sugar as condiments, Jiangsu dishes taste fresh, light and mellow.
          Jiangsu dishes can be classified into that of Suzhou-Wuxi style and Zhenjiang-Yangzhou style. The feature of Suzhou-style dishes is their natural favor in original stock and a mixture of salty and sweet taste. The characteristics of Zhenjiang-Yangzhou style food are best described by the saying that "the soup is so clear that you can see the bottom of the bowl and the sauce is so thick that it turns creamy white".

          Typical courses of Jiangsu cuisine are Jinling salted dried duck (Nanjing's most famous dish), crystal meat (pork heals in a bright, brown sauce), clear crab shell meatballs (pork meatballs in crab shell powder, fatty, yet fresh), Yangzhou steamed Jerky strips (dried tofu, chicken, ham and pea leaves), triple combo duck, dried duck, and Farewell My Concubine (softshelled turtle stewed with many other ingredients such as chicken, mushrooms and wine).

          Sichuan cuisine
          Characterized by its spicy and pungent flavor, Sichuan cuisine, prolific of tastes, emphasizes on the use of chili. Pepper and prickly ash also never fail to accompany, producing typical exciting tastes. Besides, garlic, ginger and fermented soybean are also used in the cooking process.
          Sichuan has been known as the land of plenty since ancient times. While it does not have seafood, it produces abundant domestic animals, poultry, and freshwater fish and crayfish. Sichuan cuisine is well known for cooking fish.

          Typical dishes include the following:
          Ma Po Tofu (Bean curd with mince and chili oil): one of the most influential flavors of Sichuan cuisine, served in every Sichuan restaurant. Kung Pao Chicken (Spicy diced chicken with peanuts): a specialty of Sichuan cuisine, diced chicken, hot pepper and peanuts.
          Fish Flavored Shredded Pork: fish-flavored dish in the unique style of Sichuan cuisine. Ingredients include shredded pork, agarics, bamboo shoot and carrot. The delicious dish has no fish but has the favor of fish.
          Twice Cooked Spicy Pork Slices: A traditional Sichuan dish. The tasty pork slices are fried crisp without greasiness.

          Shandong cuisine
          Shandong cuisine is the native cooking style of Shandong Province on the east coast of China. It was created during the Yuan Dynasty. It gradually spread to north China, Beijing, Tianjin, northeast China, and the palace where it inuenced the imperial food. The Shandong cuisine comprises mainly eastern Shandong and Jinan dishes. Shandong cuisine is characterized by quick-frying, stir-frying, braising, and deep–fat frying. Its dishes are crisp, tender, delicious, and greasy with salty and some sweet and sour favors. Its main condiment is salt, but it also uses salted fermented soybeans and soy sauce.

          29. Why do Chinese fight over the bill in restaurants?
          It is considered polite to offer once or even twice to pay the bill in China, even if you are the guest. So you might see people try to pull the bill away from someone else at their table and shout with red faces at each other.
          If you would like to pay the bill without a?? ght at the table, you can sneak o? to the washroom and pay the bill at that time. Your Chinese companions will likely show displeasure when they find out, but it will often be welcomed. You have to use your own best judgement when to pay and when not to pay. It is not appropriate to always be on the receiving end.

          30. What's Cheongsam?
          Cheongsam, or Qipao dress, is a female dress with distinctive Chinese features and enjoys a growing popularity in the international world of high fashion. Cheongsam was Manchu women's dress, and became popular among both Manchu and Han women in the early 1920's.

          Cheongsam fits well the female Chinese figure. Its neck is high, collar closed, and its sleeves may be short, medium or full length, depending on season and taste. The dress is buttoned on the right side, with aftting waist, and slits up from the sides, all of which combine to set of the beauty of the female shape.

          31. What is Traditional Chinese Medicine?
          With a history of 2000 to 3000 years, Traditional Chinese Medicine ( TCM) has formed a unique system to diagnose and cure illness. The TCM approach is fundamentally different from that of Western medicine.
          In TCM, the understanding of the human body is based on the holistic understanding of the universe as described in Daoism, and the treatment of illness is based primarily on the diagnosis and differentiation of syndromes.
          The TCM approach treats Zang-Fu organs as the core of the human body. Tissue and organs are connected through a network of channels and blood vessels inside human body.
          Acupuncture is a technique of inserting and manipulating fine filiform needles into specific points on the body with the aim of relieving pain and for therapeutic purposes.
          According to traditional Chinese acupuncture theory, these acupuncture points lie along meridians along which Qi, the vital energy, ows.

          32. What's Silk Road?
          The Silk Road, or Silk Route was an important path for cultural, commercial and technological exchange between traders, merchants, pilgrims, missionaries, soldiers, nomads and urban dwellers from Ancient China, Ancient India, Ancient Tibet, Persian Empire and Mediterranean countries for almost 3000 years. It is one of the world's oldest and most historically important trade routes across the Afro- Eurasian landmass that connected East, South, and Western Asia with the Mediterranean and European world, as well as parts of North and East Africa. Trade on the Silk Road was a significant factor in the development of the great civilizations of China, India, Egypt, Persia, Arabia, and Rome, and in several respects helped lay the foundations for the modern world.
          The Silk Road gets its name from the lucrative Chinese silk trade, which began during the Han Dynasty (206 BC – 220 CE). It was a major reason for the connection of trade routes into an extensive trans-continental network.

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